Abnormal psychology refers to psychology branch that examines unusual behavioral patterns, emotions and thoughts that affects ones family, social, and work life. Personality disorder arises when ones personality becomes inflexible and extreme. Most of the disorders takes effect immediately after birth and later develops into a full blown one in adulthood.
Clusters of Personality disorders
There are three clusters of personality disorders i.e. Cluster A, Cluster B and Clusters C. Cluster A refers to those personality disorders that are considered as eccentric or odd. Disorders experienced under this cluster involve paranoid, schizoid and Schizotypal disorders. Each of the condition under cluster A possesses different traits. For example, traits portrayed under paranoid include unwillingness to trust other people, having many baseless doubts about something and holding of grudges more often. Cluster B are those personality disorders that are related to erratic or emotional disorders and include antisocial, histrionic, borderline and narcissistic disorders. Cluster C are those disorders that are fearful or anxious. Disorders under this include the dependent and the avoidant disorders. Each of the cluster disorder bears different traits (American Psychiatric Association, 2000).
Diathesis-Stress model refers to a psychology theory that tries to explain behavior as a result of both genetic and biological factors i.e. Interaction between nature and nurture. This model usually assumes a certain disposition towards a given disorder may occur due to a combination of a person’s early learning and genetics. According to diathesis-stress model, the predisposition together with some form of environmental stress gives rise to an abnormal behavior. (University of Michigan, 1987)
According to this model, different behaviors inherent in different people are prompted by the interaction that exists between genetic susceptibility and happenings in life or the environment. Rahe and Holmes developed a theory which shows an inverse relationship between vulnerability and stress. Thus, more stress is required to create a disorder when the level of vulnerability is low whereas a higher level of vulnerability requires little stress to trigger a disorder. The theory explains further that the two factors, that is, stress and diathesis must be there for one to ever develop a disorder. Lastly, Rahe and Holmes found out that the more life encounters one had, the higher the level of stress.
Schizotypical Personality disorder in cluster B
Personality disorders can be said to be unrelenting behavioral patterns that originate from different rules of certain cultures. Such disorders may be brought about by factors that are oppressing or stressors.
One form of personality disorder in cluster B is the Schizotypical personality disorder which is also referred to as antisocial personality disorder. This behavior is usually marked with some sort of pervasive interpersonal behavior whereby the person feels that he or she is uncomfortable in social settings. The person also experiences reduced capacity in case of close relationships. Their perception and thinking power tends to be distorted and exhibits eccentric form of behaviors (The University of Michigan, 1987).
Characteristics of Antisocial personality disorder
The disorder is usually associated with persons over the age of eighteen but conduct disorder starts to show up before the very age of fifteen. The person has a disregard for the laws and often behaves in a reckless, deceitful, impulsive and aggressive manner. There is also lack of remorse and failure to work consistently. Males with this form of personality disorder usually have a tendency to consume alcohol excessively as a result of failure to deal with the problem of self-gratification and also the inhibition of impulses (American Psychiatric Association, 2000).
Definition of borderline personality disorder
Borderline personality disorder refers to a prolonged psychiatric disorder. It is characterized by rapid change of mood in the patient and feelings of committing suicide that may cause difficulties to doctors while attending to the affected patients. The root cause of the disorder is not quite known but most of the affected seem to show signs of improvement as time goes by.
Causes of Schizotypical personality disorder
Personality disorders are usually long-term and they interfere with one’s life for many years. The cause of the antisocial disorder is unknown but child abuse and genetic factors are believed to be the main reasons that contribute to the condition. Those people that have alcoholic or antisocial parent are at high risk and more men as compared to women are affected. (Moore & Jefferson, 2004).
Treatment of Schizotypical personality disorder
Behavioral limits should be set when needed and a streetwise approach should be portrayed without being too much punitive. Medication is not always necessary but the most important thing is to differentiate pure mood disorders from the personality disorders as those patients suffering from mood disorders will gain the benefit of medication especially the selective serotonin inhibitors whole on the other hand, those patients with personality disorders require close medical check up as far as initiation and subsequent following of the medication therapy is concerned. (Moore & Jefferson, 2004).
Controlling Schizotypical personality disorder
Most theories usually attribute the development of obsessive compulsory personality disorder to early life challenges and experiences that includes lack warm parental relationship, rigidity and over control and the presence of few rewards for the spontaneous expression of emotions.However,there is little work that has been done over the years in identifying the preventive strategies.(American Psychiatric Association, 2000).
Psychopathology refers to the study of mental distress, mental illness, maladaptive and abnormal behavior. Psychopathology thus addresses scientists who usually work in clinical contexts on descriptive psychopathology or for classification and validation of diagnosis or on the conceptual framing of the psychopathology findings. They may thus include an interdisciplinary approach to biological and medical fields or to other humanities. Besides inviting reports concerning medical research, Psychopathology also addresses the psychologists who refer to work in clinics or pathological phenomena. Psychopathology normally accepts papers on such sections as Original paper, Review paper, Case Report and the Letter to the Editor. Reviews may consist of meta-analysis, overviews and conceptual papers which are based on a given literature overview. Original papers may contain data that is generated by authors. Case Reports on the other hand is accepted only if they stimulate the functional insights of the novel or the classificatory concepts whereas the Letters to the Editor are also confined to specific scientist debate issues. (Moore & Jefferson, 2004).
The Nature of Psychopathology
Psychopathology usually consists of typologies of psychopathology which is presumed. The focus is mainly on the diagnostic and descriptive criteria and the resultant usefulness of the categories for research, treatment planning, bureaucratic record keeping e.t.c.What is mostly common to the two approaches is that the psychopathology is the way the categories are proposed as mere potential dysfunctionality with no regard to the nature of their dysfunctionalities and in regard no attention is directed towards the issue of what makes the dysfunctrionalities pathological.
Psychopathology is usually considered as rigid i.e. the act of equating dysfunctional and psychopathology is like equating the psychopathology ignorance and error (The University of Michigan, 1987).
Child psychopathology as a Psychopathology refers to physical disorders that manifests in adolescents and children. Examples of child psychopathology disorder include opposition defiant, pervasive development, attention deficit hyperactivity among others. Social workers, counselors, psychiatrists and psychologists who usually work with children who are mentally ill are informed in developmental psychology, clinical child psychology, family status and development psychopathology by the research. Child health care ought not to be overlooked and so it is important to note the dramatic changes that take place (Journal of Child and Family studies, 1992).
Parental stress nowadays are associated with child psychopathology especially conduct problems, aggression and hyperactivity. Both boys and girls are quite similar as far as the nature of their psychopathology is concerned and there is no variation in the range of parenting stress concerning their care (Journal of Child and Family studies, 1992).
American Psychiatric Association, (2000).Diagnostic and Statistical manual of mental disorders. American Psychiatric Association
Journal of Child and Family studies. (1992).Child psychopathology and deviant family hierarchies.Springer, Netherlands.
Moore, D & Jefferson. (2004).Antisocial personality disorder. Handbook of Medical Psychiatry. Philadelphia.
The University of Michigan,(1987)Harrison’s principles of internal medicine. the University of Michigan.
Turner. (1989).Child psychopathology: a social perspective. the University of Michigan