development of children. It addresses the topic of social and emotional development and the impact the parenting styles have on it. Additionally, it focuses on the effect of development and family influences on the topic.
Jannette B. Benson and Marshall M. Hiath both have a Doctorate in Philosophy and have done a number of researches that focus on the cognitive development in infancy and early childhood. I believe this source is relevant because it is concerned with how infants and children are influenced by parenting styles.
Berk, L. E. (Eds.). (2009). Child development. Boston, MA: Pearson Education.
This book discusses the holistic development of the child before birth and how environment influences child development as well as what psychologist have to say about the different stages of development. It looks in depth at the different child-rearing styles and how each impacts child development.
Laura E. Berk is a distinguished professor of psychology. She received her bachelor’s degree in psychology and master’s and doctoral degrees in child development and educational psychology. This source is pertinent based on the efficient information on the impact authoritative and uninvolved parenting styles have on a child’s holistic development.
Bornstein, M.H. (Eds.). (2002). Handbook of parenting: Children and parenting (Vol. 1).
New York, NY: Routledge.
This focuses on parenting and family and how they impact a child’s development, specifically, health, social tuning and cognitive ability. It also highlights the diverse aspects of parenting, such as, the different types of parents, the features and variety of parenting as well as the problems faced by parents.
Marc H. Bornstein is the head of Child and Family Research at the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development. He has received a number of rewards pertaining to his research. This source provides sufficient information on the development of social changes and cognitive ability as well as interaction with school.
Cherry, K. (n.d.). Parenting styles: The four styles of parenting. Retrieved October
20, 2010, from http://psychology.about.com/od/developmentalpsychology/a/parenting- style.html
This article speaks about how parents impact a child’s development. It reveals convincing links between parenting styles in addition to the effects these styles have on children. It informs the reader about the four parenting styles and their impact on the child as well as why parenting styles differs.
Kendra Cherry holds a Bachelor of Science in Psychology and a Master of Science in Education. Cherry is a writer specializing in psychology, child development and education. I think this article is useful because it discusses the effect of parenting styles and speaks about the reason for difference in parenting styles.
Meadows, S. (1996). Parenting behaviour and children’s cognitive development. London:
This book talks about, examines and assesses the association between parents’ behaviour and children’s cognitive development. There is a considerable amount of evidence that suggests an association including the direct effects of the different parenting styles. This book develops the argument about the nature and causes of cognitive development.
Sara Meadows researches and teaches how different factors affect the development of children. She has done a number of research projects as well as published psychological literatures on development. This book is relevant based on information gathered on the direct effects of different parenting styles on children’s cognitive development.
Research Question: How do parenting styles affect a child’s holistic development?
Thesis: Parenting styles such as authoritative and uninvolved influence a child’s cognitive and psychological development.
Authoritative parenting influences a child’s cognitive and psychological development.
“Authoritative child-rearing style – the most successful approach – involves high acceptance and involvement, adaptive control techniques, and appropriate autonomy granting.” (Berk , 2009, p.569)
A child’s development is optimum for independence and decision making skills when experiencing positive and maximum parental support.
The child displays a high self-esteem, self control and task persistence. (Berk, 2009)
The child exhibits high academic achievement.
Authoritative parents have high hopes and expectations for their child’s development.
“Children of authoritative parents exhibit low amounts of internalizing
behaviour such as depression and anxiety and externalizing behaviour such
as antisocial behaviour and substance use.” (Benson & Hiath, 2009, p.290)
A child’s cognitive and psychological developments are influenced by uninvolved parenting.
“The indifferent parent is not dedicated to parenting roles and is disinterested in helping foster optimal development of child.” (Benson & Hiath, 2009 , p.283)
The child of an uninvolved parent is likely to have less interest in his or her development.
The child demonstrates low esteem as well as low school performance.
The child has difficulties making decisions and expressing views effectively.
A child who is neglected by his or her parent may have a deficit in psychological development.
The child is more likely to be involved in problem behaviours such as antisocial behaviour.
“Children Caught in the Crossfire” by Samms-Vaughn in the 5th chapter of Blooming with the Pouis under the theme “Gender and Family Life” speaks about children encountering many challenges because of changes in family structure. As a result, they have a number of behavioural problems which affect their holistic development. The topic of Child Development and the research question were developed from the first paragraph.
The formulation of the research question was a challenging process for me, as the research question as well as its topic have to be feasible (validity and credibility taken into account) and researchable. Some possible research questions were formulated from a few paragraphs in the chapter. These questions were analyzed to see how researchable they were; that is, to see if there would be sufficient resources for each question. A decision was made, influenced by many reasons for the research, and the research question was chosen.
The following questions influenced my decision:
How does parent absenteeism affect children?
To what extent do parenting styles affect a child’s holistic development?
What are the major factors that contribute to parental stress?
How does parental stress affect the parent-child relationship?
In concluding, my research question is ‘How do parenting styles affect a child’s holistic development?’.