All countries developed and are developing, have a culture. A culture in turn can be represented by such things as a person use of language, choice of clothing and media and advertising portrayals. These representations reflect a mix of influences and influence how people treat one another.
There is not enough support from the government when we look at the case of Sabine Akhtar , she was 26 year of age and was stabbed through the heart by her husband Malik Mannan in Manchester in 2008 and police had previously arrested him twice and gave him a order to stay away from his wife but no charge had been brought the 36 year old husband and the police made a wrong decision in failing to charge the husband at an earlier stage. (BBC 2009)
The British Crime Survey (BCS) measurement of the culture effect on domestic violence is different to the police statistics according to the statistic. The culture effect on domestic violence plays an important role here
The aim of my research is to define how the culture has an effect on domestic violence in UK. Over the last 3 years the Coventry Refugee Centre has changed my life I learnt too many things about the different culture of many countries.
In UK domestic violence is affecting women and children lives. For many women home is where they face an abusive of relationship at hands of somebody really close to them. They suffer a long term of physical and psychological. They haven’t got any chance to make their own decision and voice their opinions cannot even protect them as well as their children.
This research seeks to determine the different impact of cultural effect on domestic violence in women and children in UK. It will also assess the impact of domestic violence towards the physical and mental health of women and children in UK.
The beliefs of abused women may be part of the reason and woman accepts the violence and stays in the relationship for example witnessing physical abuse during ones childhood may predispose some women to believe that it is tolerable in adulthood. Woman who witnessed parental abuse as children tended to be more depressed which may put them at greater risk for tolerating abuse. (Davis 1998) as he noted specifically that such woman tended to replicate to their parents violence and this may teach them that a passive response is the best. As the (Home Office 2008) statistic shows that 54 % of woman in persistently abusive relationships had witness’s parental abuse. Woman’s cognitive and psychological development may be affected by parental abuse in such a way as to place her at increased risk of victimization. One reason that woman stay is that they may believe that their husbands have the right to beat the
Research literature identifies the following risks factors of domestic violence that can be faced by minority ethnic women:
Endorsement of patriarchal views of marriage and woman’s sexual autonomy
Members of a community or family not intervening in cases of domestic violence
Isolation from the rest of their community
Immigration and asylum legislation that increase dependence on their partner
Changes in status, gender roles and traditional supports following migration
The low income has also been identified a risk factor for domestic violence and minority ethnic. Woman has a greater risk of living in poverty than majority ethnic women (Newburn 2003)
These risk factors also act as barriers to leaving a violent relationship and or even seeking support. Patriarchal norms lead to associations of stigma and shame with leaving a violent relationship. An d also restrictive immigration laws have been identified as a trap for immigrant woman experiencing domestic violence and in response to this issue many countries have adapted their immigration laws to include domestic violence concessions. Minority ethnic women can face discrimination from the majority culture while simultaneously experiencing sexism against them from both the majority group and their own minority ethnic community. This racism and sexism can also make it more difficult to seek for help. Fear that the perpetrators may be arrested or fears to immigration status and lack of trust in the police all acts ad deterrents to seeking support from the police for minority ethnic women.
According to the statistic the media has been considered one of many contributing factors in domestic violence. It has been criticized for its portrayal of violence in movies, television and printed form resulting in the desensitization of people with regard to their tolerance of violence. on the other hand the media has also been used a modern communication tool in increasing public awareness of domestic violence and increasing support for ongoing research, funding education and prevention and treatment programs and support for improvement in the laws the criminal justice system and the public policy.
The impact of income inequality and social structure may also crate more domestic violence to women’s. Men’s unemployment or part time employment has been associated with increased rates of domestic violence. (Natalie, Sokoloff and Pratt 2005) Recent study found that unemployment was a significant predictor of violence. That suggested that some men might perceive employment as a critical component of their masculine identity and resort to violence as an effort regain lost status.
Some studies report that middle class Asian women are more likely to experience domestic violence than white middle class women among some ethnic and racial minority groups are attributable in part to poverty. Some research has suggested that the discrepancy between employment and income places women at risk. When women earn more than men or have a higher education qualification and employment skills, many men feel psychologically threatened and some use violence to reassert power in their relationship (Lockton and Richard 1997)
Immigrants coming to the UK seeking a better quality of life for themselves and their families but the barriers they face are tremendous. Fearing deportation and or the loss of her children and women may be intimidated by her partner’s threat to report her to the UK Immigration and Naturalization service. She may not realize that the domestic violence is against the law that she has the legal option to stop the battering and those agencies and community resources are available to support her. Different countries and cultures may have their own values and attitudes toward a woman place family, marriage, sex roles and divorce
Domestic violence against women occurs in families from all cultural and ethnic groups (Roberts 2003) and intervention policies and practices in treating battered women should accommodate their diverse cultural backgrounds
According to the British Crime Survey statists shows that one in five women have experienced domestic violence in their lifestyle and many of these women ended their relationship because of abusive relationship. . According to the survey shows that woman chose to stay in abusive relationship because of fear if they attempt to leave, they will be tracked down and beaten or killed because of this the most women think that any prison time would be temporary and the subsequent and consequences even worse.
When it comes to the culture effect on domestic violence Uganda has the highest crime rates of domestic violence, 41 % of women reported being beaten or physically harmed by their husbands. This is because related to the economic factor as well as different life styles and culture differences in Uganda.
” research is a complex process, rooted in philosophy in terms of what is there to know and how do we go about knowing it .” ( Jewell 2007-2008, 4.4 p 71 -72) I will be dealing with human rather than materials and in order to finish my dissertation and I have to understand the behaviour of the women’s with different culture and belief and religion e.g. As I spent of my two years at the Coventry Refugee Centre as an Interpreter and Case worker this gave a good knowledge about diverse people and I understand their opinions and feelings. It will be easier for me to do my interview by using my experience in the past. To describe this philosophy Saunders said that “the challenge here is to enter the social world of our research subjects and understand their world as their point of view”.
To complete my research I will use three data collection methods:
The secondary date will be used from books, articles to update my literature review to have the best knowledge and to understanding of the general theory aspect on culture effect on domestic violence. I will also get some help from the Coventry Refugee Centre by going on their websites and speak to them face to face when needed. This secondary date will help me to designing the interview questions in order to get the best answers.
I will also organise some face to face semi structured interview to understand the effect of culture on domestic violence. I will also use internet search for this search. I have already offered my help to victim support to work for them without getting any paid and hopefully this work placement will give me more about the victim of domestic violence in order to finish my dissertation.
I will do some questionnaires to assess the domestic violence this will provide me a good feedback about the domestic violence and the trust in the police and Criminal Justice System. These questioners will provide me some quantitative date in order to get the best possible answers these questioners will given to the random women’s.
Qualitative result from interview I will use them in a two different ways first I will compare it to the secondary data which is (theory) secondly to the questionnaire results (practice) will examine the peoples view on domestic violence.
Results that taken from the questionnaires will be quantitative. The statistic will give me an opportunity analyses the results in order to create some charts, graphs and pies.
As I worked as an interpreter and case worker at the Coventry Refugee Centre it is easy for me to access into the centre and get the support that I need. I chosen my participant through my experience place because my topic is based on culture effect on domestic violence there are many women been victim of domestic violence in their home countries. I will hopefully do my interview at the Refugee centre everything will be confidential and no one will be allowed to see it. However there are some difficulties to do this interview. I will try to arrange an interpreter for them in order to finish my research proposal.
A different example is research on domestic violence for example interviews with those who haven abused to determine the effects of such violence or surveys of how frequently such episodes take place (husbands being violent to their wives or children and wives being abusive towards their husbands). Research on domestic violence investigation topic that are private and stressful and because of this have the potential to cause further pain harm to individual who are already experiencing abuse. It may also expose incriminating information and expose individual to risk. Therefore I need to be fully prepared to deal with the likely effects of the research for example the effects on participants on their families on the researches themselves (conduction such research may be distressing) and on the implications of the research for legislation.
Another example of a sensitive issue the false memory and recovered memory debate( ) over the past 20 years the famous memory psychologist Elizabeth Loftus has written about the validity of recovered memories of childhood abuse. These memories commonly come to light only after therapeutic sessions with people who use techniques such as guided imagery to explore early life experience. This domestic violence research is socially sensitive because there are potential consequences for people who have claimed to have recovered memories and for their families. Therefore to complete my research some ethnical rules that I have to take into account and consideration in order to achieve the best results. I will sign the ethics checklist and compliance form and will sign it will give it to my supervisor.
And also the questions that I will ask during the interview have to approve by my tutor. For each interview that I will ask for a signed agreement as a proof for my research. Interview data may be confidential therefore I have to keep this data and let anyone else to see it. Then I will show my questionnaire to my supervisor before I giving them out to the people.
I will be dealing with woman with cultural views, being sensitive to other cultures is easier said than done. Cultural sensitivity has nothing to with the art and music of a culture and almost everything to do with respect, shared decision making and effective communication. Too often researches ignore these values, the life style and the cognitive and affective world of the subject.
I have learnt too many things about the research method and technique that are used in it. Having completed this research that based on culture effect on domestic violence improved my argument skills in a paper. Using and collecting the data’s and example of statistics my arguments has become much better than what it used to be. And a reader will take my arguments more seriously.
My researching skills also improved in a positive way during this research proposal. In previous researches for my study I used to stuck on how to gather information but now I am able to use a largely different of sources I can now understanding the topic more widely and it also helps me to make a better argument. In my opinion this research my best research paper that I dine in my life the grade that I will get for it might not show a good grade but what I learned from it will benefit for my future researches. I spent about two days just for doing then actual research. It will be useful for the next year when it come to the dissertation by using these new techniques that I have learnt from this research proposal my arguments will hopefully more clearer and will be more apparent. How to write a research proposal will benefit me in future lessons in my life from this view of benefit I will be able to give good examples about the topic that I do I will also be able to give and create a better argument for research proposal. When you come to the conclusion for your research you than start thinking that you have achieved something that will be useful in future to support your studies.
To do my dissertation I have to stay focus on my chosen topic in order to complete it by using different skills that I