Sri Lanka army was formed in 1949 and was betrothed for ceremonial duties till they call for the suppression of two rebellions led by JVP in 1971 and 1987. Uprising of Tamil movement in Jaffna in mid 80 s, reached to the culmination of demanding separate State called “EELAM” led by the separatist group; Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE) paved the way to Sri Lanka Army to veered its role from ceremonial duties to classic role to fight against the terrorism. Sri Lankan war strategy is proved to be the only formula which exists in the world at present to wage the wining war against the terrorism.
2. As battle prolonged for over three decades, sacrifices made by the warring factions and the human cost of the conflict broaden horizons of social analysis to formulate the plan to reinitiate those disables in to the social system of the country. Following details denotes the particulars of disabled soldiers of Sri Lanka Army at the end of the conflict:
3. To this end, Social responsibility is to be set through encouragement and reinitiating disabled war heroes in to social system but it would not pay the way to integrating them in to the social system since most of them are from the ages between 18 – 33 and are from the productive ages. Dependence family members, unmarried status, less medical attention at rural bases where most of these soldiers hail from; are the social issues need to be addressed at priority. Inculcation of positive attitude, dignified social relationship, and positive attitude towards them would encourage them over sensitivity to helplessness, aloneness and feeling dependence.
4. The aim of this service paper is to examine the facing problems when integrating the Sri Lankan disabled soldiers into the social system and make recommendations to overcome the problems.
DISABLED PERSON AND DISABLED SOLDIER(Definitions Quoted from WHO)
5. As analysis progressed, necessity arises to clarify the definition of disable person and disabled soldier to address the issues and to formulate solution to bring in them to the society.
a. The term disabled person is explained; that a person is unable to fulfill his or her necessities her or his own as a result of deficiency of physical or mental capabilities and include following;
(1) Impairment. Any loss or abnormality of psychological, physiological, or anatomical structure of function.
(2) Disability. Any restriction or lack of ability to perform an activity in the manner of within the range considered normal for a human being.
Handicap. A disadvantage for given individual, resulting from an impairment or disability which limits or prevents the fulfillment of a role that is normal, depending on age, social and cultural factors, for that individual.
Disabled soldier is a person who becomes the victim of some form of physical mental retardation owing to war. By elaborating it may cause owing to following reason or multiple reasons; an accident, deceases may results amputees, blind, loss of vision, loss of hearing, paraplegia or other disabilities.
RIGHTS OF DISABLED PERSON (Quoted from UN charter)
1. The term disabled person means any person unable to ensure by himself or herself, wholly or partly, the necessities of a normal individual and/or social life, as a result of deficiency either congenital or not, in his or her physical or mental capabilities.
2. Disabled soldier shall enjoy all the rights set out in this declaration. These rights shall be granted to all disabled persons without any exception, without distinction or discrimination on the basis of race, colour, sex, language, religion, political or other opinions, national or social origin, state of wealth, birth or any other situation applying either to the disabled person himself or herself or to his or her family.
3. Disabled persons have the inherent right to respect for their human dignity. Disabled persons irrespective of the origin, nature and seriousness of their handicap and disabilities, have the same fundamental rights as their fellow citizens of the same age, which implies first and foremost the right to enjoy a decent life, a normal and full as possible.
4. Disabled persons have the same civil and political rights as other human beings.
5. Disable person entitled to the measures designed to enable them to became as self reliant as possible.
6. Disable person have the right to medical, psychological and functional treatment including prosthetic and arithmetic appliances, to medical and social rehabilitation, education, vocational training, and rehabilitation, aid, counseling, placement services and other services which will enable them to develop their capabilities and skills to the maximum and will hasten the processes of their social integration or reintegration.
7. Disable person have the right to economic and social security and to decent level of living. They have the right, according to their capabilities, to secure and retain employment or to engage in a useful, productive and remunerative occupation and to join trade unions consideration at all stages of economic and social planning.
8. Disable persons are to have their special needs taken into consideration at all stages of economic and social planning. The improvement which he or she may derive there from.
9. Disable persons have the right to live with their families or with foster parents and to participate in all social, creative or recreational activities. No disable person shall be subjected, as far as his or her condition or by the improvement which he or she may derive there from. If the stay of a disable person in a specialized establishment is indispensable, the environment and living condition there in shall be as close as possible to those of the normal life of a person of his or her age.
10. Disable person shall be protected against all exploitation, all regulations and all treatment of a discriminative, abusive or degrading nature.
11. Disable person shall be able available themselves of qualified legal aid when such aid proves indispensable for the protection of their persons and property. If judicial proceedings are instituted against them, the legal procedure applied shall take their physical and mental condition fully into account.
12. Organizations of disable persons may be usefully consulted in all matters regarding the rights of disable person.
13. Disable person their families and communities shall be fully informed, by all appropriate means, of the rights contained in this declaration.
RESTRICTIONS ATAND AS FOLLOWING WHEN INTEGATING DISABLED PERSONNEL INTO THE CIVIL SOCIETY OF SRI LANKA
1. Lack of professional knowledge restricts eligibility for employment.
2. Limited access to sources of information thus, kept uninformed on opportunities available.
3. No representation in policy and decision making.
4. come across inconvenience entertaining services available at public
Institutes since them have no facilities to take wheel chairs in.
5. Limitations on functioning of body organs and activity restriction would cause mental traumatism and be averse to live.
6. No active participation at social activities, due to conception of dependence, fear of discrimination by the society.
7. Many disabled persons who take on to work and desire to work are left quit following the reasons such as physical and social circumstances and the assumption made on their working capacity.
8. Many war veterans who returned home suffer Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD).
9. Often spouses give up work promotions, pensions, and benefits allowing their husbands to continue career in the military. If they suffer any injury, families should support to recover stress of their illness or disability. Severe injury or illness would affect the family psychologically and financially.
10. Singles come across a venture in finding a partner for marriage and those married would suffer with partner-hood and parent-hood as a husband and father.
11. According to the UN charter disabled persons have the same rights as others. No sanitary facilitates available or no places constructed for them especially in public venues.
12. Those parents who have no any other means of income except of victim’s would fall upon dilemma to find the living.
13. Though they wish to try some other means to earn extra money they are being restricted by the circumstances therefore have to cope with their salary.
EMPOWERMENT OF REHABILITATION OR REINTEGRATION PLAN
1. Empowering disabled experienced the employment restrictions if not the careful rehabilitation or reintegration plan is not made as per the special requisites of disables. This empowerment plan must include referrals for medical and dental services, coordination of training and allowances and include the following key components:
Evaluation and planning,
Rehabilitation and employability (training or education),
Job ready status, and interrupted status.
2. All disable soldiers are entitled to obtain pay and allowances as per army pay schemes to enjoy satisfied life in the society but social idealness, after employment stress and negative feelings will make this young working class and negated feeling over their disability if not their grievances are not properly addressed. To avoid the dilemma over the sacrifices made by them best form is to employ them in a suitable field and turnover the project may enlighten the horizons of the disables.
3. Suitable service system may provided with job accommodation, job modifications, case managements and linkages to the relevant service working environment as process continued. In order to achieve employment opportunities following employment systems could be introduced;
a. Rapid Access to Employment. This emphasizes the goal of immediate employment and is available to those who already have the skills to compete in the job market in appropriate occupations. Among other things, disables may be provided job readiness preparation, resume development, job search assistance, and accommodations and post employment follow-up.
b. Self-Employment. This is for disables who have limited access to traditional employment and need flexible work schedules and a more accommodating work environment because of their disabling conditions or other special circumstances. They may be provided an analysis of the viability of a business concept, development of a business plan, training in the operation of small businesses, marketing and financial assistance, and guidance on obtaining adequate resources to implement the business plan.
c. Employment through Long-Term Services. Under this, the disables
who need specialized training or education to obtain and maintain suitable employment. Training or education (or both) may be provided, including on-the-job training, apprenticeships, internships, job shadowing, work monitoring, work-study, public-private job partnering, or higher education sufficient to obtain suitable entry-level employment.
d. Independent Living Services. The Independent Living Services is for disables who may not be able to work immediately and need additional rehabilitation to enable them to live more independently. Disables may be provided with assistive technology, independent living skills training, and connections to community-based support services.
4. Considering the circumstances some of disables may not be employed even though the preferred it due to disabilities they possessed. They may provide with the independent living programme designed to help whose service-connected disability or disabilities may be so severe that they are unable to immediately pursue an employment goal. It helps them to be able to live independently, participate in family and community life, and increase their potential to return to work and this service may include followings;
a. Training in activities of daily living.
b. Attendant care during period of transition.
c. Transportation when special arrangements are required.
d. Assistive technology.
e. Specialized medical, health, and rehabilitation services.
f. Services to address any personal and/or family adjustment issues;
(1) Peer counseling.
(2) Housing integral to participation in a program of special rehabilitation services.
Training in independent living skills.
Connection with community-based support services.
Training to improve awareness of rights and needs.
(6) Assistance in identifying and maintaining volunteer or supported employment.
5. Vocational-Educational Counseling provides a wide range of vocational-educational counseling to disables and their dependents who are essentially involved in peer association. Gradually this programme may direct into Person-centred planning that enables people to speak up about their personal hopes and ambitions and to be more in control of their lives. People’s horizons expanded and became more ambitious as they saw other people doing different things, as they themselves started to achieve things, and as they got more used to thinking and talking about the opportunities they wanted.
GOVERNMENT PARTICIPATION TOWARDS THE INTEGRATING THE DISABLED SOLDIERS
1. Following institutes are empowered by the government authorities to integrate disables to feudal societies. Those are;
a. Ranaviru Seva Authority. Act of parliament on 5 June 2000 mandated for promotion, welfare, socioeconomic integration of disabled ex service members and their families including providing service for tri service and police personnel.
Under this proposals following measures were granted to the disables and those are:
(1) Ranaviru sansada, psychological and socio programme.
(2) Ranaviru land project.
(3) Educational scholarship.
(4) Skill development programme.
(5) Welfare programme.
(6) Ranaviru village and welfare loan system.
(7) Directorate of rehabilitation are include measures taken to monitor and praised the rendered services by these soldiers.
b. Directorate of Rehabilitation. Maximum effort for physical and psychological adjustment within the limit of his disability to enable him to live as useful and satisfying life as is humanely possible.
(1) Disabled soldiers receive basic medical and surgery care from military hospital.
(2) Suffering loss of arms or legs, provide artificial limbs, ensure by Directorate of Rehabilitation
(3) Then they will be introduced to vocational skills, clerical, gem cutting, motor mechanics, welding, computer science, book binding, air conditioning, refrigeration.
(4) Then guide to find a gainful employment which suit their abilities and striving for additional financial support.
(5) Ranaviru sevana formed under the directorate of rehabilitation for residential treatment.
(6) Rehabilitation programme under ranaviru sevana, medical, educational, psycho-social, vocational.
(7) Under those programmes following services will be provided medical services, hydro therapy, physiotherapy, physical training, training sports, vocational training, educational opportunities, and religious activities.
(8) Practicing self care skills to remove them of the fears and pain resulting from both traumatic experiences at war s well as the psycho social problems arise from their disabilities.
(9) The Ranaviru Sevana is continuing their programs and some achievement as follows:
(a) Ultimate goal is attainment of maximum physical and psychological adjustment of each person with a disability.
(b) Occupying in units
(c) Uplift their welfare measures
(e) New talent and skills
(f) Independent life, economically balance and socially accepted.
1. Owing to the conflict which prolonged for almost three decades between Sri Lanka Army and LTTE some 21327 soldiers have been left with any form of infirmity which makes burdensome impact on the government and to a considerable extent on society. However, responsibility remains still to take care of and give warmth and affection whom indeed need such attention and care in particular.
2. Some existing forms for categorization of a disabled would be, amputees, blind, loss of vision, loss of hearing, paraplegia and percentage of infirmity also given along with. It is apparent that these disabled soldiers undergo no vocational training or have no professional skill due to the fact that they joins military service in the age of eighteen or below twenty three therefore, this influence on social integration consequently. Further, this would affect their psychology thus possible ramifications are uncertainty, feeling discrimination and illogical risk of future life. Minor factors such as non representation at policy or decision making, feelings of dependency, response of the mass in social integration, possibilities to meet the needs at public institutes also could affect adversely to some degree.
3. possible measures to overcome these ventures and circumstances some implication would be; empowerment plan is to be carry out, evaluation, planning rehabilitation and employability, securing independent living, make trades available and offering uninterrupted living. To generate employment opportunities for disabled soldiers following process can be worked out: rapid access to jobs, a variety of self employments, employment on full time services and independent services. Some positive aspects observed are; public and private transport provides reserved seats for disable persons and able mass takes no hesitation to offer his/her seat to a disabled if needed.
4. Afford of family needs and cope up all necessities with a little income or pension are burning issues lie before them. Therefore additional means of income(s) should be kept available through self employment etc.
5. Disabled soldier could be launched in to the society as a demanding person through identification and exploiting self potential. This may require standard training and professional exposure and guidance. Government in collaboration with Sri Lanka Army has implemented some viable plans to veer this venture in to success: establishment of the Ranaviru Seva Authority to assist the disabled soldiers and their families and Sri Lanka Army established the Directorate of Rehabilitation to facilities them.
1. Disabled soldiers undergo no vocational training or have no professional skill prior to enlistment to the army due to the fact that they join military service in the age of eighteen or below twenty three. Therefore, effective measures to be taken to exploit inherited unique capabilities and establishment of vocational training centers also to be incorporated in to the endeavor.
2. Communication flow of the society is to be tangible and easy access to information sources would keep disabled soldier informed on facts and benefits available.
3. Misinforming on psychological issues like uncertainty, feelings of dependency, and superstitious impressions of the mass that a disable soldier is a burden to the society and has no output or contribution to the national production should be eliminated.
4. Pay due honour and do the needful for them when needed in appreciation of their priceless sacrifices.
5. Granting opportunities to participate in and making them coworkers in planning and decision making would address and fulfill their social requirements. So creating opportunities to reach this process will help them.
6. Development of infrastructure facilities at public and private institutes as they facilitate them to meet their requirements in any aid of mobility.
7. Psychological operations and regular counseling progammes to be done aiming disabled soldiers those suffer Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD).
8. If the disabled soldier is left unfit for further mental or physical employment, his dependants should be kept strong to withstand the living thus job opportunities should be crate for them.
9. Disabled persons also should be aimed and considered when constructing miniature or huge public facilities such