Abstract Non- Parental child care refers to the care of children during the absent of their parents and it can start from an early age until the child is old enough to take care of themselves. Many States has laws of leave children that are underage unsupervised without the present of an adult is illegal.
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Working parents are responsible for arranging child care for their children and are responsible for looking for a stabilized and quality environment to help them with their children’s in their psychological, social and cognitive development.
There are three type of non-parental child care that parents can look into, whether it is a family member, a friend or a day care setting, the most important factors are which non-parental child care would be the best for their children’s development.
In a home child care setting there are several advantages that a child can receive, the child would remain in a secure and familiar environment and the reason is because the child and it’s sibling would be the only children that would be cared for, which would be in the home setting. The parents can monitor the quality of care that the child is receiving because of the individual attention that is coming from the care provider, especially if the child care provider is a relative, the child can develop a socio-biological perspective and it is the least expensive and stable care for the parents.
If a child is taken care of by a non-relative and if the care provider has training in the field of child care or has a license, like a nanny, it can be a more expensive form of care because of the special skills and education that the provider offers can contribute to a very high quality care experience.
Out of home care arrangements are commonly used by parents and it can be in an informal care setting, which is an unlicensed arrangement and the provider can be a relative or a non-relative that cares for children in their own homes, but the number of children care may vary. When several children are taken care for at one time they generally called family daycare, daycare homes or even family day care homes. Children of six that are receiving care are known as group daycare homes. Family care can also be classified as a formal care if the provider is licensed. Regulated and unregulated family daycare shares many of the same characteristics.
The advantage of this type of child care setting is that it is closer to the parents homes and where the children would be in a comfortable environment and even though this type of setting can’t really provide a structured program, the children can have the opportunity to interact with other children in the home like environment which is also promoting social development.
Child care that are through centers are the most well known form of regulated care, they may care for a small or large numbers of children and sometimes it can be as much as 300 children and are divided into classes according to their ages and with the parents preferences. Some of these providers usually have some training in the early childhood education and are teamed up with one or two teachers. These centers followed structures program and focuses on the aspects of the development of the children and since the classes are at a large number of children the centers also provides a good opportunities for social interaction.
The influence of a non-parental care on the development of young children is the environment and the caregiver of the quality of care that can influence the development of a child’s growth. Daycare centers has the most visible and easy identified child care arrangements and studies has shown that children who attend a center base care has the most demonstration in high cognitive and language outcomes and has the highest level of school readiness than children in other types of care setting with the comparable quality. Children in day care centers have more advance in social development then children in a non-familiar arrangement. Children intend to have more confident, outgoing, assertive, and less distressed, timid and fearful when they are in a center base day care setting then children that haven’t step foot in a day care center.
Children from low income families who participate in an out of home care that are both regulated and unregulated have a better vocabulary skills than children who don’t receive child out of home care or by a relative. Studies had found that children that are in enrolled in a day care setting has score at a similar level on test of cognitive ability compared to children who stays at home with their mothers and children’s behavior that are in a group care has also decreased in children that are 3 years old.
The quality of a day care environment is referred to structural and process that is the most important characteristics that shapes children behavior and development. Children that are around adult child ratio of a physical environment of a day care setting with the availability of an educational orientated daily program has shown to be the most important indicator of quality care.
The quality care of a child care center with the warmth, enriching and sensitivity interaction that’s between a caregiver and the child will increase the language, social and cognitive competence in a child of all ages. Children in a daycare setting increase positive language stimulation and interactions between caregivers at the age of 15 months and 36 months and better cognitive development at the age of two years old.
Newborns and infants that are taken care out of the home and continue on in their development in a day care environment by the time they enter in to preschool and continue on with the quality of interaction out of the home their verbal competence will increase with another cognitive development.