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Overview of Personality Dimensions

Overview of Personality Dimensions

A) Short description of Personality Dimensions.

• Machiavellianism: It is a personality test Which is developed by Niccolò Machiavelli who is a politician and philosopher. Machiavellianism in psychology refers to a personality trait which sees a person so centered around in their own interest that they will manipulate, misuse and mislead other to accomplish their own objectives.

• Self-Monitoring: This test is developed by Mark Synder in 1974 which refers to control one’s behavior to accommodate in social situations. This test includes two types of questions namely Scenarios and Self – assessment. Scenario indicates how one behaves in the situation. Self- assessment illustrates the degree to which situation applies to you.

• Risk Taking: Risk-taking as a personality dimension refers to the individual tendency to get involved in the activities that are harmful or dangerous. It gives the participant a chance to experience a result which they see as positive.

• Type A Vs Type B: Type A is defined as a collection of behaviors that is impatience, having a sense of urgency to accomplish the most task, highly organized, ambitious and aggressive personality. On the other hand, Type B personality refers to relaxed, easy going, less pressure to achieve success and less frantic and explainable personality.

• EI (Emotional Intelligence): According to Peter Salavoy and John Mayer Emotional Intelligence is the ability of individuals to recognize their own feelings and those of others, discern between different feelings and label them properly and managing emotions to adjust to situations and achieve one’s goals.

• Locus of Control: This personality trait refers to individual assumptions about responsibility for success or failure. It is of two types which are the internal locus of control and external locus of control. Internet locus of control means when a person trust that his acts result in more good outcomes than bad outcomes. Whereas, people with external locus of control are always looking for good fortune, destiny, and unexpected outside force and never prefer to assume the responsibilities for their bad outcomes and miserable performances in life.

• Self-Esteem: Self-Esteem or Self-Confidence as a personality dimension refers to the reflection of a person’s overall evaluation and appraisal of own value. Self-Esteem consists of beliefs about oneself like I am intelligent and smart and emotions such as pride triumph, disgrace, and shame. Self-Esteem plays an imperative role in motivation and success throughout life.

• MBTI: It stands for Myeer-Briggs Type indicator which provides a constructive and flexible framework for understanding the differences and strengths of individuals. It is based on carol Jung’s theory of psychological type which reports one’s preferences on four scales and each scale shows two opposite preferences. There are 8 letters that make 16 Myeer-Briggs Type which is extraversion, introversion, sensing, intuition, Thinking, feeling, judgment and perception.

• Big 5: Big 5 personality dimension is consisting of openness, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, neuroticism. Openness indicates imaginations and insights of people. Conscientiousness dimension illustrates the high level of thoughtfulness and goal-directed behavior. Extraversion is described by the level of sociability and enthusiasm. Agreeableness refers to the level of being friendly and compassionate. Neuroticism is characterized by sadness, moodiness and emotional instability.

A)    A short description of what the corresponding test is intended to measure or reveals.

  1. Machiavellianism:  This test helps to reveal the manipulation and selfish nature of individual for personal gain.  People scoring above 60 have high machs and those who score less than 60 are low machs.
  2. Self-Monitoring:  Self- Monitoring test measures the degree to which the individual has will and capacity to modify how they are seen by others.
  3. Risk Taking: This test helps to determine individual propensity to get involved in risky and dangerous activities. People with a high score indicates more willingness to take a risk in comparison to those who score lower in the test.
  4. Type A vs Type B:
  5. EI (Emotional Intelligence):   Emotional Intelligence test helps to measure the various aspects of your emotional intelligence and suggest methods to improve it. Moreover, it reveals that people with high Emotional Intelligence tend to be more successful than people with lower Emotional Intelligence.
  6. Locus of Control:
  7. Self-Esteem:
  8. MBTI: The MBTI personality dimension measures psychological preferences of how people understand the world and decide. The test contains a series of questions and your answer indicate what type of personality you have and gives general assumptions about how your personality is most appropriate in terms of careers, communications etc.
  9. Big 5: The Big 5 test measures the intensity to deal individuals, change and environment and handle work and depression situations. The extreme dimension may qualify or disqualify you from some job opportunities whereas moderate scoring is viewed as appropriate for most of the careers.




Part2: Take each Test

A)    Indicate your score/result

Test Score
Machiavellianism 63/100
Self-Monitoring 8/25
Risk Taking 7
Type A vs Type B 82(type A)
EI (Emotional Intelligence) 108
Locus of Control 9/10(high internal locus of control)
Self-Esteem 78
Big 5 32/35(openness to experience)

B)    Discuss whether you think that this accurately reflects who you are with

 reason. Why?

  1. Machiavellianism:  My result of Machiavellianism test is 63 out of 100. According to this theory, people who scored above 60 are considered to have “High Machs”. People with high machs are more centered around their own well- being. They trust that to excel, one must be deceptive.  Moreover, they have a calculating approach while they interact with other people. The result accurately reflects my behavior as I believe that I manipulate my behavior when I interact with new people and I believes in not telling the real reason about your doings to everyone unless it is important to do so.
  2.  Self-Monitoring:  The result reflects that I have low- self-monitoring skills and people with low self- monitoring skills tend to regulate their lives according to their own internal beliefs and they are less worried about social setting. Low self- monitors tend to care little about changing their behavior to social circumstance and keep similar beliefs and attitudes regardless of paying attention to other sentiments. The result perfectly reflects my behavior as I live the life as per my own rules Moreover, I present myself in front of the public at the same I am in my private life.
  3. Risk Taking: My result depicts that I am risk- taker personality which is true as  I like to face challenges and risky activities to succeed in life. According to me, the more person takes a risk, there are chances of getting more profit.
  4. Type A Vs Type B:   My personality test reveals that I have Type A personality dimension. People with type A personalities are more competitive, aggressive, self- critical.  Moreover, they always try to do more things at one time like reading and watching television. I think the result accurately reflects my personality as I am an aggressive personality and I quickly become impatient and try to do more multiple jobs together.
  5. EI (Emotional Intelligence):  My result shows that I have high EQ level. This mean I am good in making   relationship with people, I understand the emotions and feelings of other people very well. Moreover, they are not afraid of change and curious about change. The result truly reflects my personality as I am very good in making relationship with people whether I am at college or workplace, I am always curious to know about people and try to understand their emotions.
  6. Locus of Control: My test reflect that I have a high internal locus of control. People with a high internal locus of control believe in themselves, have a strong sense of efficacy, tend to have less impact by the views of others and feel confident whenever there is any challenge in the way to achieve goals. According to me, the result is partially accurate as I always work hard to get the things I want and face every challenge confidently, but I also believe in luck and fate. Sometimes, I got impacted by the opinions of others.
  7. Self-Esteem:  The Self- Esteem personality test states that I have a relatively high self -esteem. It states that I have high self- confidence and know how to accept the negative views of others. The result truly reflects my personality as I have confidence in my abilities, and I am always ready to accept criticism from others and took it as positively to achieve my goals.
  8. MBTI: The test depicts that I have ESFP (extraverted, sensing, feeling and perceiving) personality. People with ESFP are very spontaneous, resourceful and outgoing. They love to become the center of attention and they are often named as an entertainer. They are more practical and optimistic. I believe that the result is accurate as it suits my personality as I am kind of easy going and friendly person who also believes in practical and real-life situations.

Big 5: The results describe my personality as more openness to experience which implies that I am more creative, have a broad range of interest and excitement to know about the world. This is true as I always like to try new things and challenges in life.

Part 3: Kolb’s Learning Style Inventory.

A)    Briefly describe Kolb’s learning style model.

Kolb’s learning style was published by David Kolb in 1984. This theory basically works on two levels which are as follows:

  1. Four stage cycle of learning
  2. Four separate learning style

Kolb’s learning style is represented by four-stage cycle of learning in which learner ‘touches all the bases’. 

A presentation of Kolb’s two continuums is the east-west axis which is known as Processing Continuum (it indicates how we approach a task) and Perception Continuum (it represents our emotional response).

Effective learning is seen when individual advances through a cycle of four phases of having a) concrete experience which is followed by b) reflective observation of the experience which prompts the c) formation of abstracts concepts which are at that point d) used to test the theory in future circumstances, resulting to a new experience.

Kolb (1974) sees learning as a coordinated process with each stage being mutually supported of and feeding into the next. It is possible to enter the cycle at any stage and follow through its logical sequence. However, effective learning occurs when a learner executes each of the four phases of the model. The different learning style is as follows:

Diverging (Feeling and Watching)

Accommodating (Doing and Feeling)

Converging (Doing and Thinking)

Assimilating (Watching and Thinking)

B)    Take the test and identify your preferred learning style (Diverging, Accommodating, converging, Assimilating) based on the test. Discuss whether you think this is true.


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