In this research paper I will be explaining all the different psychotherapy theories and practices from the past to the present. Theories researched consist of psychoanalytic therapy, Alderian therapy, existential therapy, person-centered therapy, gestalt therapy, cognitive behavior therapy, reality therapy, feminist therapy, and family systems therapy.
Psychotherapy Theory and Practice 3
“Psychoanalytic therapy seeks to help the patient understand unconscious past forces which affect emotions and behaviors.”(www.depression.about.com) A patient meets with their therapist at least once a week and ranges from several weeks up to years.
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The founder of psychoanalytic therapy was Sigmund Freud in the late 1800s. People who would benefit from this therapy are people with a depressed mood, anxiety, and repetitive patterns of behaviors that result in a sense of limited choices and enjoyment.
Alderian therapy is named after its founder Alfred Adler in the early 1900s.” Alderian psychotherapy takes the early view that we are all in control of our own destiny and not subject to the whims of fate.” (http://whatispsychology.net/what-is-adlerian-therapy/)
Alderian therapy is used for individuals, groups, and families. It is used to increase interest in social interaction, reduce or modify self-destructive patterns of behavior, and to help them solve problems in a more positive manner.
Existential therapy was founded by Rollo May, Irvin Yalom, and Victor Frankl in the early 20th century. ” Existential psychologists believe that it’s not only important to identify and reduce the systemtomatology of mental illnesses, addiction, relationship issues, and other psychological issues, but to go beyond the symptoms, addressing how a person defines meaning, purpose, and a life well lived.”( http://www.allpsychologycareers.com/topics/existential-psychology.html)
Psychotherapy Theory and Practice 4
“Person-centered therapy, which is also known as client-centered, non-directive, or Rogerian therapy, is an approach to counseling and psychotherapy that places much of the responsibility for the treatment process on the client, with the therapist taking a nondirective role.” (http://www.minddisorders.com/Ob-Ps/Person-centered-therapy.html) Person-centered therapy was founded by Carl Rogers in the 1930s.
Rogers believes that you need to create a close personal relationship between the client and the therapist. The client determines the general direction of the therapy. In person-centered therapy, the therapist should seek to increase the client’s insight through informal clarifying questions. Rogers believed the most successful therapy was the therapist’s attitude.
“Gestalt therapy, which was founded in the 1940s, is a form of experimental psychotherapy in which the patient is encouraged to become aware of his/her emotions as they exist in the present moment.”(http://www.crchealth.com/types-of-therapy/what-is-gestalt-therapy/) Gestalt therapy was founded by Fritz and Laura Perls.
Gestalt therapy is successful in adults and teens that are being treated for substance abuse, addiction, behavior disorders, mood disorders, grief, trauma, sex addiction, compulsive gambling, bipolar, and depression. It promotes a focus on the present and an awareness of the mental and emotional processes that impacts a person’s decisions, actions, and behaviors.
“Cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) is a type of psychotherapeutic treatment that helps patients understand the thoughts and feelings that influence behaviors.”
Psychotherapy Theory and Practice 5
(http://psychology.about.com/od/psychotherapy/a/cbt.htm) The founders are Aaron Beck and Albert Ellis in the 1960s.
Cognitive behavior therapy is short term. It is used to treat depression, anxiety disorders, and phobias. This therapy is not expensive because of it being short term.
“Reality therapy is a therapeutic approach that focuses on problem-solving and making better choices in order to achieve specific goals.” (http://www.crchealth.com/types-of-therapy/reality-therapy/) It was founded by Dr. William Glasser, MD in the 1960s.
The goal of reality therapy is to solve problems and rebuild connections. It is focused on the here and now instead of the past. This therapy is effective in resistant teens struggling with substance abuse, defiance, and manipulation.
“In a world where the male sex dominates, feminist therapy realizes that a woman is affected by social pressures which reveal themselves through her identity,” (http://www.goodtherapy.org/feminist-therapy.html) It was founded by Olivia Espin, Jean Miller, Carolyn Enns, and Laura Brown in the 1960s.
In feminist therapy clients are encouraged to take social action. The therapist is to help the client understand the impact of gender roles in their lives and help them recognize different kinds of power that they possess.
“Family systems therapy is a type of psychotherapy which involves family members or people in a close relationship rather than just individual clients. “(http://www.disorders.org/what-is-family-systems-therapy/)
Psychotherapy Theory and Practice 6
Family systems therapy is a talk therapy. They talk about boundaries and how someone crosses those boundaries. The key to changing an individual’s understanding is working with the entire family.
Psychotherapy Theory and Practice 7