This chapter will provide an overview of literature of past research and a conceptual model in relationship with and defining the research problem stated in chapter one. In this chapter an introduction shall be given to the dependent variables of Job Performance and the independent variables Job Stress and Demographic. The conceptual model illustrating the relationship between Job Stress and Job Performance will be explored and thereafter provide a better understanding about how the independent variables of Demographic and Job Stress affect the level of Job Performance. The Literature will give an explanation of the conceptual model and address positive and negative remarks given with regards to the conceptual model. Furthermore, independent variables Demographic and Job Stress and the dependent variables of Job Performance will be discussed. The relationship amongst and between the dependant and independent variables and the way they influence each will also be discussed.
2.2 Conceptual Model of Relationship between Job Stress and Job Performance
Organizations around the globe tend to ignore the job-stress factors or the job related stress symptoms. Have that kind of management in their organization they are sending a massage to their employees that they are not important or they may them feel so. Absence of effective management can affects the job performance of the employees. Therefore is very important to have a human resource that can detect those issues and address those findings to those who are responsible for the consequences of the result of job stress illness. (Makin, Kalali & Anvari, 2012).
According to Mizuno, Yamada, Ishii, and Tanaka (2006) Job stress is consider a social problem that has a recognition world-wide. Employees in other industries have less Job Stress than police officer. Police duties are specialized, numerous, complicated, and sometimes highly risky. Stress have always effect on your performance, impact of stress can influence it positive or negative (Tuten & Neidermeyer, 2004).
During some work activities pressure can be consider a advantage because its leading to make the productivity greater. But and the order hands it can be if stress increase to excessive pressure it may have a negative impact (Tao, 2001). The increase of stress brings some motivation to perform better. However absence of stress has no motivation at all. The relationship between Job Stress and Job Performance can be illustrated with an inverted U shape showing the consequences of absence and extreem stress. The inverted U shape also known as Yerkes-Dodson Law (Sullivan & Baghat, 1992: Yerkes & Dodson, 1908). The debilitating pressure of extreme stress creates an inability to perform (Tuten & Neidermeyer, 2004). On the contrary, Shen and Wang (2004) conduct a research in the police force of Taiwan, they conclude that the correlation between Job Stress and Job Performance has a positive result. The higher the stress the greater the performance. Glaxter, Steta and Izso, (2004) stated that Job Stress is in every country different and that it is influence by cultural differences. World-wide JobStress is changing due to globalization dramatically.
By management theory and research Job performance, Job behavior and job attitude are consider the most important dependent variables (AbuAlRub, 2004; Crawford, LePine & Rich, 2010; Eatough, Chang, Miloslavic & Johnson, 2011). According to Dewa, Thompson and Jacobs, (2011); Harrison, Newman and Roth, (2006); Jamal, (2010); Jex, (1998) it was not easy to measure the predictors and result of job performance and job attitude. For the last fifty years a lot has been done to indentify those measurements with the same degree of success. On base of the recently in detail conducted study and analysis of the relation ship of stress and performance it has bring the importance of such type of empirical studies in non-Western countries (Gilboa, Shirom, Fried and Cooper, 2008; Muse, Harris and Field, 2003). The organizational commitment is a key factor when we analyze the relationship between job stress and job performance. Therefore was important to examine the role of organizational commitment (Glazer & Kruse, 2008). Baba, Jamal and Tourigny, (1998); Maslach, (2003) state that in big countries when organization are developed statements like Job Stress, burnout, organizational commitment and Job performance have been periodically tested. Contrary in non development countries the portability and usefulness of the job stress, burnout, organizational commitment and job performance has rarely been examined (Carr & Pudelko, 2006; Foley, Hong-Yue and Lui, 2005; Safaria, Othman and Wahab, 2010). Organizational commitment has an importand role how employees behave. In the most Western countries individualism has a high tend and a low collectivism, in the other hands the non western countries has a high tend a collectivism and low on individualism. Therefore is theoretically important to gain knowledge of the potential impact of these cultural differences on job stress and performance relationship.
Age Years of Service Position Ranke Education Marital Status
Intraorganization Extraorganization Job itself Personal Factors
Task Performance Contextual Performance
Test of Difference
Figure 1: Research Framework of Y. Chen
2.3 Job Performance
Campbell (1990) defines job performance as the right attitude to perform if their will reach the goals set by their organization. Viswesvaran (2000) defines job performance as its capability to cope and perform under an increasing or expanding workload to reach the goals set by the organization. The right attitude towards job performance gives an understanding what performance constitute. Job performance is not the outcome of an attitude but rather the attitude it self. Job performance is the attitude that contributes to the goal set by an organization. The definition stated by Motowidlo, Borman, and Schmidt (1997) was due to the fact that the behavior towards job performance can be evaluated in terms to which it contributes to the goal set by the organization. The definitions above mentions basically that the right attitude towards job performance can contribute to the organization goals. All behaviors towards works can be refers to a job performance. The result and effectiveness of each behavior can be seen as Job performance. Organizations are looking for factor that can influence the variables of job performance to be able to take advantage in the job environment (Jaramillo, Mulki, & Marshall, 2003).
According to (Jaramillo et al 2005) Job performance measurement can be use as the basis for promoting, dismissing, rewarding, and auditing employees. Furthermore to satisfy individual demands of employees, enable them to achieve self-fulfillment and integrate individual and organizational goals. However Job performance can be divided in task performance and contextual performance. The task performance facet is typically described. The in-role attitude taken can be described as similar to the concept of task performance. The theory of task performance is very much alike to that in attitude of oneself manner of conducting. It indicates to the result of an individual achievement, and the result is precisely correlate with the goal set by the organization or an addicted tasks. (Motowidlo & Van Scotter, 1994). Contextual performance refers to how volunteering an employee is to carry out task that is not to their job description, cooperating with their collogue, following the organizational rules and procedures, endorsing, supporting and defending organization objectives. Therefore, contextual performance is not part of a formally job description is may be consider to be an extra-role attitude that are not necessarily expected or rewarded by the organization. Instead, it keeps holding the atmosphere and the organizational structure where the technical base must function. In concept of excess of oneself manner of conducting, contextual performance does not impersonate one attitude through formal procedure into an organization but through natural interchange, turning back of kindness, and indulge support (Shen & Wang, 2004). With relevance to the task performance of the law enforcement officers, only those affiliated to police assignments can be on the list of evaluation task performance of law enforcement officers. On contrary, with contextual performance it is not a evaluation base assignment of the law enforcement officers and can by no means be measure, but its companionship is believed to ease the accomplishment and betterment of task performance. It is necessary for the law enforcement officer to leave no stone unturned and with fieriness and extra attempt as necessary to finish own task activities successfully.
2.4 Job Stress
Work stress is defined as the harmful physical and emotional responses that occur when job requirements do not match the worker’s capabilities, resources, and needs (National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health 1999). Job stress can occur from difference cause and have an impact on the people in certain point in their live. This statement about the psycho-social factors of the job and the health and well-being of employees has been well register (Dollard and Metzer 1999). It is very difficult to pronounce stress on each one who response to it. Perceptions will not active individual behavior because it rely response to the neutral system in the brain. Stress consequences can be positive or negative. The cause of stress can be favorable or destructive, depending on how one feel the stress (Mitani, Fujita, Nakata, & Shirakawa, 2006).
Stress can be divided into positive stress and negative stress. When people are facing new challenge or are dealing with some changes, a little bit of pressure can be translate as a positive stress that will help the person mind to be more focus adequately, cultivate physical performance to reach a goal set successfully. A lot of people have a great performance under an optimal level of pressure. On the other hands negative stress has an opposite effects on a person’s psychological and physical health if stress has not been appropriate handle over an extended period of time (Chen, 1993). In those days social psychology aspect has an impact in our community, while job stress is one of the major topics that are discusses. Those who are effected most take a serious treatment to the physical and psychological health, physical and psychological health of individuals, especially those jobs that are recognize as one very stressful as policemen, firefighters, medical personnel, and rescue-team members (Mitani et al., 2006).
According to French (1975), job stress is produced when challenge has turned into job demands that people cannot handle, relaxation has turned to exhaustion, and a sense of satisfaction has turned into dissatisfaction. People can not handle the pressure that turn to be stress. Job stress can be any pressure that has become excessive consequently has a negative outcome on an individual behaviors that it person itself, are not able to deal with. The job its self could be a request that are above the capacity of the employee or an imperfection that their couldn’t please. Job stress is an individual’s prejudiced idea of the surrounding. It is a frame of mind that psychological and mental change caused when the desire result cannot be complete or the goal set cannot be achieved (Weng, 2002b). Job stress can go along with difference illness; both mental and physical like heart disease, stroke, headaches, backaches, acne, depression, sleeping problems, sexual difficulties and attitude conflicts like drinking, smoking, violence, hostility, and so go on. Chen (1993) stated, in a study conducted by the Dallas Police Department, that the result and the consequences of job stress on the law enforcement officers can be divided in a short-period and a long period. The effect of job stress take the edge of the physical and mental health of law enforcement officers and also affects their personality, health, family life, job performance, and even the good relation with the community. In the most devasted cases, job stress may bring to disease or suicide.
Factor of stress that contribute to a lot of stress on law enforcement officers contain administrative jobs, job conflict, and boredom with the job, lack of resources, low salary and position, job locations, excessive responsibility, lack of judicial support, adverse image, value conflict, race issues, danger, and unclear definition of responsibilities. The surveillance law enforcement officers sometimes need to work long or night shifts. Frequent fatigue, irregular diet, and insufficient rest have exposed them to a much higher risk of disease. In the study conducted in the police force of Taiwam, Weng (2000) found a negative association between social support for law enforcement officers and perception of job stress. In his survey with policemen in Taiwan, Weng (2002) found a negative relationship between social support for policemen and perception of job stress. Can be conclude that social support is very important to the law enforcement officers. The bigger the social supporter the less pressure will be on their job. Mizuno et al. (2006) stated that the problem cause through job stress brings a lot of social problem with it and that way it must be seriously handle. Law enforcement job description has a lot of specialty the job is not a easy task that’s way law enforcement officers may be affected to both mental and physical fatigue, and in pain from depression and feelings of aimlessness. Their personal life, their job performance, their behavior will be affected as an outcomes. Therefore, is very important to take job stress result on police officers in treatment.
2.5 Demographic Variables
The variables job stress in association with job performance can be impact by the demographic variables. The demographic variables have in important role in the aspect of job stress and job performance. Those factors of the demographic variables aspect have been the key factor that can influence other variables. Employees unknowing seems to be influences by the demographic variables likes age, gender, education level, job salary and time in position (Becker, 1989; McCaffery, 1988 & Steers, 1975).
The association between the cause of job burnout and the demographical variables is independently measure. Maslach, Schaufeli, and Leiter, (2001) stated that younger employees are more affected due to burnout then the group of employees that are between the age of 30 and 40. One of the occupations their study to analyze the association between the variables demographic and burnout is teaching. In some study its reveal that younger teacher suffering of depersonalization and emotional exhaustion greater then the group of the older teachers. In others study its conclude that older teacher are more affected due to job burnout than the group of the younger teacher or the other way around (Brewer & Shapard, 2004). The relationship between the demographic variables gender and the aspect of job burnout has concluding by some researcher that there is no strong indicator. There is study that indicates that job burnout under female are greater then under male. There is also study that that show that the stress that lead to the job burnout under male is greater then female. In other study researcher has conclude that there is no important difference between them. According to Maslach, et al., (2001) there are difference result of job burnout along female and male. In some studies, female have more scores than male in conditions of emotional exhaustion and male have more scores than female in conditions of pessimism.
The marital status of the demographic variables will be address. Most single particularly men are more exposed to burnout than married individuals. It looks like that single individuals have more burnout than divorcees (Maslach et al., 2001). Researchers like Cordes and Dougherty (1997) report that the rate of burnout among married employees is less than single ones. There are other studies that reveal a higher job burnout under married employees’ than under the singles employees (Russell, Altmaier, & Van Velzen, 1987). Educational level a factor of the demographic variables will be address. People with higher educational level are more likely to be under stress that have as consequence that they can be victim of job burnout. This due to their heavier responsibilities of maybe due to the goal set by them that has not been accomplish (Maslach, et al., 2001).
According to several studies that have been done on the association between demographic variables and job burnout it can be conclude that the demographic variables have a effect on job burnout. One of the area that a lot of studies have been conducted is the association of the demographic variables and job burnout, in the field of nurses and teachers (Schaufelli, et al., 2009).
Overall, several studies are conducted on the relationship between demographic variables and burnout. For example, there are various studies on the relationship between demographic variables and burnout among nurses and teachers (Schaufelli et al., 2009). There are researchers such as Jackson (1993) that found important differences among employees’ burnout in terms of gender, age and marital status.
In contrary there are studies conducted that researchers who have not reported a significant association between demographic variables and burnout (Dillon & Tanner, 1995; Friedman & Faber, 1992). Regarding to the association between demographic and job burnout in several studies conducted it seen that there is a remarkable conflict. Job burnout can be more in hands if the conflict could be handling more correctly. It will help Human Resource to achieve more goal in the area of preventing and reducing job burnout (Brewer & Shapard, 2004). Preliminary researches show that burnout consequences can emerge in various types such as commitment mitigation, increase in absenteeism and turnover, productivity decrease, morale reduction, and decrease in human consideration (Cordes & Dougherty, 1993; Maslach & Pines, 1977; Maslach, 1978). Maslach, et al., (2001) talk about job burnout in great detail and what is the result in both job performance and health aspects. In case of job performance, it will be affected. The outcome will be that employees will have the feeling to job withdrawal, absenteeism, intention to leave and turnover.
Those employees who keep their work despite of their burnout are facing with productivity and effectiveness decrease. The impact that job burnout has on job performance it will turnover in Accordingly, burnout accompanies with job satisfaction decrease as well as job or organizational commitment mitigation. In terms of health, burnout can cause mental dysfunctions which lead into anxiety, depression and self- esteem decrease (Maslach, et al., 2001).
According to Makin, Kalali and Anavari (2012) the demographic variables analyzed in this study included age, number of years as a police officer, position, rank, education, and marital status has an impact on the others variables.
Police officers face an assortment of task, interpersonal and physical demands and stressors in their job that most people never encounter at work or in their personal lives. The aim of this study is to explore how the variables Demographic and Job Stress can contribute to Job Performance and to which extent Job Stress can affect Job Performance. The demographic variables age, number of years as a police officer, position, and marital status has an impact on the others variables. The Demographic variables influence the other variables like job stress in relation to job performance. There are also researchers who have not reported a significant relationship between demographic variables and burnout. Work stress can come from a variety of sources and affect people in different ways. Reviewing the literature can be concluded that job stress can affect job performance negatively and positively. Based on the reviewed literature the research question has been presented and it will be examined in next chapter. In chapter three we will discuss the research objectives and methodological approach used for the purpose of this research.