TESOL stands for Teaching English to speakers of other languages. Of late, the English teaching industry has developed this acronym which is associated to learning, teaching and examination and also certification of the English language. Presently, the world studies two major branches of English; British English and American English. Since the English language is the world language there has been creation of different acronyms all over the globe by trainers and educators in this field.
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North America’s # I rated TESOL institutions and Global TESOL collages leads to the way in professional academic based TESOL in the whole world. All the in-class and distance education syllabuses are designed professionally, monitored, administered and quality controlled so as to ensure that the graduates are of very high quality of teachers available today. The in-class TESOL guaranteed courses are offered across America and Canada.
Globally, the North America and other colleges have become a household name in TESOL distance learning, offering quality professional quality TESOL diploma and certification courses online and also through correspondence (Ohta 2001, pg 53). About 35 percent of graduates complete successfully their TESOL courses by distance learning. Global TESOL institution was the first institution to provide a TESOL teacher qualification program in Canada. It has currently expanded its programs to include professional and advanced level diplomas to achieve the demands of students’ worldwide and English teachers.
All basic and secondary institution students presently in the United States will be contributing to and living in an increasingly varied society and inter reliant community a countries in the 21 century. To understand their social, personal and long term career goals, individuals will be in a position to communicate with others proficiently, effectively and appropriately. The challenge of modern education is to prepare all the students for life in the new world, together with the learners who join schools with another language other than English. There has been increased purpose aim of identifying the ESL standards and their roles in associated with the system.
In the United States, communities and schools are experiencing increased cultural and linguistic diversity. Annually, more and more learners with different languages other than English and who come from communities, homes with varied traditions, histories educational experiences and world views, fill classrooms in urban, rural, and suburban settings. There has been an increment in the number of youths and school-age children who speak other languages other than English by 68.6 percent in the last 10 years.
In 1993, the English language learners in United States public schools totalled to more than 2.5 million. Currently, projections estimate that, by the year 2000 most of the school age individuals in over 50 major United States will be from language minority surroundings (Klahr 1976, pg 86). There is a great variation in proficiency level and academic needs to the ESL students.
Some of the ESOL students are current refugees and immigrants, taken to the United States by their families searching for refuge from persecution, political repression or by families looking for economic opportunities like business activities. Other students have acquired limited formal schooling. Some students are members of ethno linguistic clusters that have stayed on the continent for generations, some more extensively than the United States has existed as a nation. Some of the students have had former education, including accuracy in their nature languages.
The primarily concern is with the students in basic and secondary schools who are non-native speakers of English and who are referred to as ESOL learners and students. There have been standards set to describe and specify the language competencies ESOL students in secondary and preliminary schools so as to become fully proficient in English, to have unrestricted admission to grade-appropriate directions in challenging educational subjects, and decisively to lead rich and prolific lives.
The establishment of the standards has been by the effort of other national standard set of groups especially by the foreign language standards and English language arts. The total three language standards schemes share an emphasis on the essence of: assessment that respects cultural and language diversity, the role of ESOL learners’ native language in their general learning development and English language, cognitive, cultural and social processes in academic development and language, language as communication, the societal and individual value of both bi-and multilingualism and also language learning through significance and meaningful use (Braine 1990, pg 121).
For TESOL research to be effective for second learning, its standards have seemed not to work alone. In turn, other professional organizations and firms have devised world-class standards which are developmentally appropriate and useful. These standards provide high levels of success in content education for all scholars, including the ESOL students. But the substance standards do not provide the educators with the strategies and directions they need to help ESOL learners to get these standards because they have an assumptions that, students ability and understanding English to engage with the content.
Most of the substance standards do not recognize the central role of language in the content achievement. Nor do they emphasize the styles of learning and particular assessment and instructional requirements of students who are still developing ability in ability in English. In summary, the substance standards do not add English to the personal home languages, SOESL standards are high required in TESOL learning.
The ESL standards have recognized that besides school entry, the students should acquire extra culture and language and learn the competencies in English that are characteristics of English native speakers at the same age and that are basic to the full English language skills attainment and other content standards. The ESL principals articulate developmental English language requirements of ESOL students and highest special assessments and instructional considerations that must be provided to ESOL students if they are to gain from and get the high principles proposed for other matters.
Therefore, the ESL principles are vital because they; emphasize the main role of language in attaining of other principles, emphasize on the English language development requirements of ESOL students, and also ensure provision of directions to tutors on how to meet the requirements of ESOL learners (Harkla 1999, pg 93).
Several myths have been associated with the second language learning which prevail both among several educational professionals, several lay persons and policy makers. It is perceived that ESOL students learn English quickly and easily due to being exposed to and enclosed by native English speakers. The fact of this matter is that it takes more time for an individual to learn the second language.
It also involves a quite significant effort on the part of the student. It is hard work to learn the second language because even the youngest students do not just simply pick up the language. It is also perceived that when ESOL students can be able to communicate comfortably in English, they have proficiently developed in English language. The fact of this is that it can take a student for ESOL around 6-9 years to attain the same level of proficiency in learning English as a native speaker.
More so the ESOL student taking part in thoughtfully designed programs of sheltered or bilingual content direction remain in school longer and achieve significantly higher academic rates as compared to learners without such advantages. Majority of the people also perceive that, in earlier periods, refuge children learned English rapidly and assimilated quicker in to American life. Contrary to that, most of the refuge students in the early part of this century did not easily learn English quickly or well. Most of them dropped out of education to work in sectors that did need the type of academic attainment and communication skills that substantive career opportunities need today.
Consequently, TESOL came up with a vision of effective learning for all students. The purpose of ESL principal can only be fully recognized in the wider context of learning for ESOL students. Therefore, before presentation of the ESL principles, it is of great importance to outline and explain the over arching vision of effective learning. Some of the TESOL’s vision include: the knowledge of over one culture and language which is of advantageous for all learners, the effective learning also needs comprehensive provision of the first rate services and full acquisition to the services by all learners (Braine 2005, pg 88).
All educational personnel should have an assumption of responsibility for the learning of ESOL learners. At the same time, effective education for ESOL learning comprises of native like levels of ability in English. Last but not the least the effective learning for ESOL students should include the promotion and maintenance of ESOL learner’s native language in community and school context.
Effective learning for ESOL students includes native like stages of proficiency in English. For ESOL learners to be successful in a learning institution and ultimately outside school, they must be in a position to utilize English to accomplish their personal, educational and social goals with the similar proficiency as English native speakers. In school, the ESOL students require to be able to both write and read English so as to demonstrate their learning and achieve academic content.
ESOL students also require to be in a position to follow routine classroom directives provided in English and recognize and utilize appropriate communication models so as to become successful learners in the academic environment. Lastly, ESOL students require using English to have effective function in social settings when outside the school and also in academic performance and assessment principals that differentiate between academic and language achievement are also needed if ESOL learners are to be granted full credit for learning academic content as they acquire English (Braine 2005, pg 114).
For effective learning of ESOL, there should be promotion and maintenance of ESOL students native languages in both community and school contexts. Through definition, the ESOL students already know and utilize other languages. Both the school completion and academic achievement for ESOL learners is enhanced significantly especially when they are able to use their native language facilitates development of the second language. The development and use of ESOL learner’s native language also serves United States national interests since it increases the cultural and linguistic cultural available as the US competes globally in economy.
The achievement of challenging world class educational principles by learners is only possible if all the schools prepare their educational missions with ESOL students as well as others in mind. For comprehensive learning, there should be sharing of responsibilities by and collaboration among all educational professionals working with the ESOL learners (Helbert 1976, pg 155). Professionals should extend their knowledge to encompass aspects of relevance to the learning of ESOL students.
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Harkla L, (1999). Generation 1.5 Meets College Composition: Issues in the Teaching of Writing to U.S.-Educated Learners of ESL. Mahwah.
Hiebert E, (2005). Teaching and Learning Vocabulary: Bringing Research to Practice. Mahwah.
Klahr D, (1976). Cognition, Learning, Psychology of Collections. Hills lade.
Ohta A, (2001). Second language acquisition processes in the classroom. Mahwah.