describes each aspect of the acronym in detail. Six distinctive sections of the multimodal therapy procedures and tactics, that differs from others therapies, are all mentioned in the chapter. Included is explaining part of the bridging process where the professional purposely listens to the client’s world so when asked to share true emotions or feelings, the client feels more comfortable and understood, not isolated. Also discussed is the ways of which multimodal therapy overlaps cognitive behaviour therapy and rational-emotive therapy. All of the above will assist outlining Lazarus’s approach of therapy, being multimodal.
Sharft, R.S (2008) Theories of Psychotherapy and Counselling; concepts and case (4th ed) (pp. 573-579)USA: Thomson Brooks/Cole
Lazarus’s view on human behaviour describes that humans learn from experiencing and observing negative and positive consequences of the interactions with other individuals. His BASIC I.D. concept (7 modalities used to experience the world oneself) which consists of Behaviour, Affect, Sensation, Imaginary, Cognition, Interpersonal relationships and Drug/Biology. An assessment of the BASIC I.D. consisting of interviews, modality profiles and assessment instruments (multimodal life inventory) All of this information will assist me to understand Lazarus’s approach to therapy.
Keat, D.B. (1979). Multimodal therapy with children.(pp. 15-17) New York: Pergamon Press.
This book demonstrates how an imaginative and creative professional can apply the BASIC I.D. concept to treating/helping children with problems or disorders. Techniques must be artistic and attention grabbing to keep the young clients for example books, games and music. All off which can be used as an exciting form of communication. However it’s also mentioned that child multimodal therapists have certain skills compared to those that have adult clients. Specific skills range from creativity to technical techniques. This section proves a strength the multimodal approach t can be adaptable to all clients, in this case children.
Lazarus, Arnold A. (1997) Chapter Three: What is the Multimodal way? In Brief but Comprehensive Psychotherapy (pp. 25-26) New York: Springer Publishing Company, Inc.
As an example, a table of a modality profile is shown and broken up into three sections. Modality using the BASIC I.D. discovers the problem; emotions, reactions, negative issues and pessimistic feelings of oneself. Proposed treatment; explores possible outcomes relating to the problems and what needs to be done to recover the situation/issue. The example exhibits how the BASIC ID is used in practise with a client.
Palmer,S. & Milner, P (2001) Chapter Twelve: In the counsellor’s chair. In Councelling-The BACP counselling reader (vol 2) (pp.94-95) LONDON: SAGE Publications
This interesting chapter is an interview with Lazarus himself. He answers questions about developing the multimodal approach, his explanation on the BASIC I.D. and also explains how the common phrase ‘a systematic and technically eclectic approach’ is related to multimodal therapy. Lazarus explains in the interview that he realised many clients that received help, relapsed soon after with problems such as depression, anxiety and even extreme weigh gain/loss. He describes professionals are capable of excellent work yet it’s very limited and narrow minded, therefore he believed that more could be done in the bigger picture. Lazarus states how reliable the BASIC I.D. can be as at anytime you can stop and focus in on one modality. It also functions as a model ensuring that important factors in the client’s life isn’t left out or forgotten. This chapter provides interesting and important views and quotes form Lazarus himself.
Bongar, B & Beutler, L.E. (1995) Chapter 20: Brief and Crisis Psychotherapy In Theory and Practice. In Comprehensive Text book of Psychotherapy Therapy and Practise (pp. 394) New York: Oxford University Press
Multimodal therapy is listed under ‘crisis support’ which is the focus on discarding the cause of the problem/ issue (crisis) and instead putting attention to continuous support, help and guidance and even medication ,if required. Lazarus’s approach is an example of both clients’ issues through role plays, assignments, general homework etc. It explains that the BASIC I.D. allows the professional to have information on all aspects of the BASIC I.D. modalities allowing them not only to recognise the reason for the problem, but an effective intervention plan. The strength here is that the BASIC I.D. of a patient not only highlights the present problem but also their customary or preferred approach to life.
Beutler, L.E. & Consoli, A.J. & Williams, R.E. (1995) Chapter Fifteen: Integrative and Eclectic Therapies in Practise. In Comprehensive Text book of Psychotherapy Therapy and Practise (pp. 275) New York: Oxford University Press
Explained in this chapter is a strength of the multimodal approach as it highlights the importance of personalising precise treatments to the clients. The Gordon Paul question used is very interesting as multimodal therapy can be the answer. “What treatment, by whom, is most affective for this individual with that specific problem, under which set of circumstances and how does it come about?” (Gordon Paul 1969) It also emphasises that some clients need either a close and formal client/professional relationship or an informal and more relaxed relationship. The BASIC I.D. allows a customised healing/treatment plan based on the client’s challenging areas that are adapted to the client rather than a stock-standard approach the client must adapt themself to.
The seven modalities while assessed can produce what is described as a ‘firing order’ through the procedure of ‘tracking’. The professional concentrates on the needs of the client’s favoured or dominate modality firstly, making the client comfortable. Then crossing over slowly into the other, more dynamic modes is the ‘bridging’ process. This piece of information further discusses the multimodal approach.
Two limitations (the weaknesses) are described in this chapter. The first is the lack of experiential research the BASIC I.D. includes. It’s also mentioned that multimodal therapy doesn’t supply clear instructions for choosing the appropriate treatments. Also since it was developed, the approach hasn’t grown, remaining the same with no improvements over time. This is further discussed in the chapter.
Gregoire, J & Jungers, C.M. (2007) The Counselor’s Companion: What Every Beginning Counselor Needs to Know (pp. 182-184) New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc, Publishers.
The chapter describes both the positives (strengths) and limitations (weaknesses) of multimodal therapy. The strength being that the client has the opportunity, as required, to be involved in constructing a plan of action aiming to help the client’s problem(s). This allows the professional to use behavioural strategies, also being a positive for the client, as they are well researched and easy to understand. In contrast a lack of the therapeutic system is described as it’s believed that in multimodal therapy, feelings and emotions are normally not included in the treatment. The second is that clients may see the professional as the leader who may be in a way controlling or manipulating the client. These contrasts will help me outline the strengths and weaknesses of multimodal therapy.
Dryden, W. & Mytton,J. (1991) Chapter five: The multimodal approach. In Four approaches to counselling and psychotherapy (pp. 135-65) New York: Routledge
This whole section of the book discusses all the aspects of the multimodal approach. As an example they vary from the development, the therapy, distinctive features, the goals etc. The tracking process is explained in a clear way including the ‘firing order’. Firing sequences are the order which a client may react and being individuals we all have different sequences in which we react, Lazarus explains. Examples show that the BASIC I.D. can have different firing sequences (order of modalities) whether being SACI, SCIB etc. The bridging process connects to the tracking process, which is once again described in detail. This chapter outlines the processes used in Lazarus’s approach.
Corey, G. & Lazarus, A. (2005) Chapter Six: A Multimodal Behaviour Therapist’s Perspective on Ruth. In Case approach to counseling and psychotherapy (6th ed.) (pp137-141) Canada: Brooks/cole
Arnold Lazarus wrote this section of the book therefore the views are directly from his train of thoughts followed by his reasoning’s. He uses an example of a client named ‘Ruth’ and discusses how to select multimodal strategies and techniques. He mentions that the goal of the multimodal approach isn’t to precisely eradicate every single problem of the client but to gain an understanding with the client ‘Ruth’ and then pave a way to help decided whether its relaxation training needed etc. He then discusses techniques such as role plays that he would put into practise. The examples allow me to see how Lazarus himself exercises his approach.
Engler, B. (2009) Chapter Sixteen: Cognitive-Behavioural theories. In Personality Theories (pp. 447-449) U.S.A: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company
While outlining the multimodal approach, this chapter expresses how Lazarus felt he had to help clients discard anxieties made up in their own imagination. Goal rehearsal is described as encouraging the clients to imagine themself satisfying their goal and time protection, imagining placing yourself into the future. Mentioned is another positive of multimodal therapy as the approach has been translated into German, Spanish, Dutch, Italian and Portuguese. Being proven successful, you can find the approach being exercised globally in also hospitals, self-help centres and even nursing homes. Also stated is that Lazarus bases his approach on self-determination in contrast to pathology. The individuality of each client is in the spotlight, focusing on what is best for them individually. Multimodal therapy is highly effective (a strength) as it follows precise and disciplined retraining behaviour procedures.
Nelson-Jones, R. (2006) Chapter Fourteen: Multimodal Therapy. In Theory and Practice Of Counselling and Therapy (4th ed.) (pp. 368-394) London: SAGE Publications.
Six distinctive features of the multimodal approach are broken down in this section as follows..1) Detail and attention must be given to the BASIC I.D. 2) Second-order BASIC I.D. (infrequent circumstances when a BASIC I.D. is at a point where no further progress can be made therefore a second BASIC I.D. is formed in more detail than the first.) 3) The modality profiles are examined and used 4) Structured profiles are used created by the professional 5) Tracking process (firing order) 6) Bridging process, which deliberately follows tracking. Must keep in mind however the above six features aren’t always necessarily in that order. Each of these six features are reviewed and discuss